Basic Concepts of the Quran

Summarized excerpts from the book by Mawlana Abul Kalam Azad (edited by Syed Abdul-Latif), first published in 1958; published by the Islamic Book Trust in 2003.  ISBN 983-9154-49-4.  118 pages.

The Quran is simple and direct, imparting a message that need not be considered obscure or mysterious.  Although its meanings are layered and deep, it is the clear and direct messages to which we should pay the most attention.  What follows is an introduction to the Quran in general and to surat al-Fatiha in particular.

There are four qualities attributed to God in surat al-Fatiha:  1) that He is the Rabb, or the one who cares for, nourishes, provides for and “raises” us much like a loving parent; 2) that He is merciful and this care reaches all beings, and is always in the spirit of mercy, despite our perceptions of our experiences; 3) that, as an aspect of mercy, He dispenses justice, if not on earth than eventually on Judgment Day; 4) He offers guidance (huda) in various ways (including instinct, senses, reason and revelation) so that we can grow spiritually, enjoy His favor and avoid His anger.

Belief in the existence of God is ingrained in human nature, and man’s concept of God naturally assumes Oneness or Unity as well as Omniscience and Omnipotence.  From the time of Adam, who understood this primordial truth, man retrogressed, perhaps due to his inability to comprehend the Absolute transcendental (non-physical) nature of God.  Relating the qualities of humans or other creatures to God (personifying God) and image worship ensued.  However, the highest that the human intellect can achieve is to think of God abstractly, without any symbolic aid – the transcendental view; it is this view that the Quran endorses and emphasizes:  “There is nothing like Him.” (41:11 and 112:4)  While the Quran mentions many attributes of God (as adjectives), these do not lead to physical incarnations or symbolic representation.

The Quran mentions many prophets of God who came to restore the primordial faith in the One and Only God.  Most followers failed to draw the line between the teacher and the teaching, eventually becoming excessively devoted to God’s messengers (rather than to God who sent them) and even attributing divinity to them.  However, the testimony of faith in Islam continuously reminds us that “there is no God except Allah (the God) and Muhammad is his servant and messenger.”  By repeating this statement, we can never hail Muhammad as God or His incarnation, and by extension, all prophets of God.  This statement simplifies religion to the utmost, making true faith accessible to all, and putting an end to arguments about the divinity of creatures and, especially, of God’s messengers.

Just as the primordial concept of the Creator – a single God – was the natural understanding of early man, so was the concept of a single human community.  It is inconceivable that Adam and Eve, or the earliest communities, considered themselves as anything but a single community. Only after they focused on their differences that the concept of “otherness” was born.  The Quran says, “People were one community… (2:213) Because of the multitude of prophets who came to mankind over the centuries, there are bound to be differences in the minutia of daily life. These differences, however, should not divide mankind.  The human population should remain a single community.

The Quran is uncompromising regarding the unitary and transcendental concept of God.  It also endorses a single community and is opposed to “otherness” or groupism.  Furthermore, the Quran guides the reader in the proper treatment of others.  The foremost command in this regard is not to become divided:  “He has prescribed for you the religion which He enjoined upon Noah and which We revealed to you (O Muhammad), and which We enjoined upon Abraham and Moses and Jesus, commanding, “Establish this religion and do not be divided regarding it.” (42:11).   Every sort of groupism, such as sexism or racism, is against this command.  Any paradigm other than what supports a unified, egalitarian human community is groupism of some sort and not the universal way of God.

Some people accept the message of unity of God and unity of man, and the Quran offers them guidance for the most upright life.  Others reject it and to them it is said, “There is no compulsion in religion.”  The Quran encourages tolerance towards people who believe differently: “to your religion and to me mine” (109).  Those who believe in God and live righteously should never look down on others who are yet to be guided.  Just as God provides for and guides all His creatures to their purpose and potential, He will according to His wisdom, offer guidance to people according to their aptitudes and readiness.  Guidance is an ongoing process for each of us.

But there is a third group that deliberately and violently oppose and persecute those who believe.  It would be a disservice to humanity to leave the third group’s hostility unchallenged, because it would uphold wickedness or cruelty.  So in order for mercy to prevail, there must be the presence of justice. It is the duty of all people to oppose those who sow discord among people; however, within the right to justice is the recommendation for forbearance, forgiveness and magnanimity.  But those who insist on oppression and the corruption of God’s way will eventually meet justice.

One aspect of justice is the law of causation, which results in man’s punishment or reward in this life and the next.  Every thought, feeling and action produces a result appropriate to it, and that is its recompense – reward or punishment.   The law of causation often results in unpleasant happenings that man may mistakenly assign to divine displeasure.  The afflicted may sooner or later realize that they were, in fact, an aspect of Divine mercy; that which exposes blockages on the path of perfection, alerts him when he goes out of bounds, makes him aware of his poor decisions, and helps him restore the necessary balance so he can get back on the straight path.  But for he who resists guidance in these cases, the force may increase (which is further evidence of God’s mercy) or he may be left off the path entirely.  The latter should not assume that he will escape justice, which will be complete in the next life.  “He who does right – it is for himself, and he who does evil – it is for himself.  And your Lord will not deal unfairly with his servants.” (41:46)

The Quran asserts that salvation is the result of devotion to God and righteous living.  Just as the laws of nature regulate and sustain the universe, there is a spiritual law to govern the life of man, and this law is one and the same for everyone.  This “straight way” (the Deen) is belief in the Unity of God and righteous living.  The Quran says, “…They who set their face toward God and do what is right – their reward is with their Lord…” (2:105-106).  “Whosever believes in God and the Last Day and does what is right shall have their reward with their Lord…” (2:59).   “By time, man is in loss except those who believe (in one God) and do good works, and enjoin truth and enjoin patience” (103).  Therefore the two key conditions of salvation are devotion to the one true God and righteous living.

The straight way, which is the object of guidance asked for in Surat al-Fatiha, is the way of conformity or surrender to the laws of life fixed by God.  There has been no variation in that way throughout time, despite variances according to era, climate, culture, etc. The primary aim of this spiritual law of life or the way of God, the Deen, is to preserve the unity of mankind and not to serve as a force for disunity.   Rather it should inspire the feeling of fellowship between one and another and facilitate community life bound by the common tie of devotion to God.  This is the central principle for the unification of the human race.

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