The Quran is the most recent holy scripture and, according to it, the last to ever come. It is also the only scripture that is intact in the original language. It is regarded by Muslims as the Speech of God that was revealed through Muhammad over a period of 23 years to him, his contemporaries, those who believe, and to all of humankind. The main topics in the Quran, presented in 600 Arabic pages, relate mainly to faith, deeds, and the ramifications of our choices in these spheres.
While the Quran’s verses cover various topics throughout, there seem to be three main sections that prompt us to 1) adopt the basic faith as well as the basic deeds required by our Creator and needed for our salvation, 2) develop deep faith in God and awareness of the unseen world, and 3) refine and perfect our character and behavior in light of eventual consequences.
In the first third of the Quran, the chapters and verses are long, and the sentence structure is simple and clear. The material is very detailed, it contains a lot of rules, and it often relates to the community as a whole; it is telling communities how to live. This section contains the longest verse – which is about documenting debts and trade transactions.
The first third is first and foremost a call to pure monotheistic faith. It declares in very clear terms that there is only one God, the Creator of all. It asks rhetorical questions and presents many arguments to rectify the beliefs of the “People of the Book” or Jews and Christians, as well as polytheists, animists and atheists. The Quran insists that Allah, our Creator, is a single and unique deity that deserves our undivided devotion. It criticizes those who blindly follow tradition, superstitions and man-made religious laws and rituals. It declares that the religion that has always been taught by prophets and messengers throughout time is Islam, or submission to the Creator of all. The reader is instructed to: “Say, ‘We have believed in Allah and what has been revealed to us and what has been revealed to Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the Descendants and what was given to Moses and Jesus and what was given to the prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and we are Muslims [in submission] to Him.’’’ (2:136) One of the last revealed verses is positioned in this section: “Today I completed your religion for you and I have perfected My favor on you, and I am satisfied with Islam as a religion for you.” (5:3) It also outlines the main acts of worship in Islam: strict monotheistic belief, prayer, fasting, charity and pilgrimage.
The other main subject of the first third is laying the groundwork for building an Islamic community. It includes instructions related to marriage and family life, diet, spending including interest and debts, caring for vulnerable sectors of society, inheritance, polygyny and divorce. It emphasizes justice and moderation. This section also discusses principles of war and peace, including peace and defense treaties, treason, and jihad – removing obstacles to justice and peace. Not only does this section present guidelines for the well-being of society and peaceful coexistence, it also relates the fate of nations due to their moral choices.
This first third of the Quran is a clear answer to the short supplication that comprises the first chapter, which asks the Lord of the Worlds to “show us the straight way, the way of those upon whom you have bestowed Your Grace….” The criteria of receiving this grace is given: “And whosoever obeys Allah and the Messenger, then they will be in the company of those on whom Allah has bestowed His Grace….” (4:69) “…And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger will be admitted to Gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise), to abide therein, and that will be the great success.” (4:13) Given the subject matter in the first third, the Holy Quran is a guide to true monotheistic doctrine and an indispensable manual for personal and communal life.
The second third of the Quran focuses more on natural, historic and spiritual phenomena that build faith in God’s power, control and wisdom. The main topics in this section include divine scripture, Allah’s Lordship, Allah’s right to worship, prophets, angels, resurrection, Heaven and Hell, destiny or fate, natural phenomena, miracles, parables, and descriptions of the truly faithful servants of God. All this leads the reader to contemplation, wonder and introspection.
Almost every chapter in the second third begin with mentioning that the Quran originated from the Creator of all things. The section expresses repeatedly that among his attributes is that He has knowledge of everything, seen and unseen, He is the provider for all His creation, His has bestowed favors and blessings to humanity, He has power over all affairs of the universe, He has the ability to give life and cause death, and He can resurrect and recreate as He wills.
Many chapters in this section convey detailed stories of various prophets and their peoples. Chapter 21 states the message of all prophets: “Not an apostle did We send before you with this inspiration sent by us to him – that there is no god but I so worship and serve Me” (25). The surah also says that each prophet was sent to his people whereas Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, was sent to all mankind (107).
The Quran draws attention to natural phenomena such as the origin of the universe and the significance of water in creation, (21:30),the creation and development of the embryo (23:14), the properties of milk and honey (16:66,69), the underground structure and purpose of mountains (16:15), the language of ants and birds (27), deep seas and interior waves, barriers between fresh and salty water (24:40, 25:53) lightening, and sleep (30), all of which point to a Single Creator and Lord of the universe. Among the familiar things of this world, an unseen reality is also described, including angels, devils, Paradise and Hellfire, thing we realize are not beyond the ability of an all-powerful Creator.
The purpose of life and the fate of mankind is clearly indicated as well. We are to expect trials and tribulations as a means of testing our faith: “Do men imagine they will be left (at ease) because they say ‘We believe’ and will not be tested?” (29:2). After being tested in many ways, “Everyone shall taste death, and We try you with evil and with good, and to Us you will be returned” (21:35). All of us, regardless of our expectations, will stand before our Lord for judgment to determine whether we deserve reward or punishment: “And We place the scales of justice for the Day of Resurrection, so no soul will be treated unjustly at all. And if there is [even] the weight of a mustard seed, We will bring it forth. And sufficient are We as accountant” (21:46). The mention of a Hellfire and a Paradise is included repeatedly in this important section.
The middle third of the Quran also mentions many miracles, such the story of Mohammad’s night journey to Jerusalem and ascension to the Heavens, the story of several youth who slept for 300 years. It describes the miracles of Moses – the staff, his hand, the Red Sea – as well of those of Jesus, including his immaculate conception and his ability to cure the sick and raise the dead, all by God’s permission. Whether awe-inspiring miracles or seemingly everyday occurrences, the verses in the Quran point to a single, omnipotent deity.
All of these subjects, which range from history to the Hereafter, from natural phenomena to nature-defying miracles, from the purpose of this life to what awaits us in the next, develop our faith, help us perform the duties entrusted to us by God and lead us to make better choices for more perfect behavior.
The chapters and verses in the last third of the Quran are shorter than previous sections. The sentence structure grows increasingly short, terse, and powerful, with rich vocabulary and more obvious rhythm and rhyme than previous sections. The intensity of expression lends a sense of urgency to the text and evokes strong emotions like awe, humility, tension, fear, anxiety, hope and longing.
Like the first third of the Quran, this part has prescriptions for the faithful, but they usually describe personal behavior rather than family, commercial or military law. For example, chapter 49 forbids slandering others, looking down on others, spying on one another, backbiting, defamation and suspicion. Many verses urge us to refine and perfect our character and behavior, such as “Repel the evil deed with one that is better, then he between whom and you there was enmity will become as though a dear friend.” (41:34).
Many verses in this section remind us of God’s justice and our eventual judgment before him, such as “No bearer of burdens shall bear another’s burdens.” (53:38) “On that day you will be exposed; not a secret of yours will be hidden.” (69:18). It presents in no unclear terms that there is indeed a punishment for ingrates, unrepentant sinners and those heedless of God’s warnings. One particular verse is repeated ten times in a single short chapter: “Woe to the rejecters that day!” (77). But some people will be spared: “Shall we treat those who believe and do good works as those who spread corruption in the earth; or shall we treat the pious as the wicked?” (38:29). Complementary verses then describe the relief and joy of an easy reckoning as well as the reward for firm faith and righteous work.
As the reader progresses through the last third of the Quran, strong language starkly contrasts the destinies of the good believers and the rejecters of faith with graphic descriptions of the Hereafter – Paradise and Hellfire – evoking dread, fear and terror of Allah’s wrath as much as desire and longing for His forgiveness, acceptance and reward. The vivid descriptions of the consequences of evil or good conduct prepare the reader to make the choice between right and wrong. He finds himself resolving to seek forgiveness, mend his ways and seek God’s pleasure through sincere faith and good deeds.
The conclusion of the Quran offers a first step and a clear direction for the reader. He is commanded to “Say: “He is Allah, [who is] One, Allah, the Eternal Refuge. He neither begets nor is born, Nor is there to Him any equivalent.” This chapter (112) is the essence of monotheistic belief that is reiterated throughout the Quran and which the reader should be convinced of by this point. The command is now to say it and believe it with all one’s heart. This short chapter is followed by two equally short chapters that are supplications asking the Creator to protect one from both external and internal evil, fitting supplications to conclude the Quran.
Traditionally, when one completes a reading of the Quran, he immediately starts again with the first chapter, a prayer that asks to “show us the straight way, the way of those upon whom you have bestowed Your Grace….” The Quran, as the answer to that prayer, is a book that every person should hold dear for the clear path it illuminates. As chapter 73 verse 19 says, “Indeed, this is a reminder. Let him who will, then, choose a way unto his Lord.”